Friday, May 25, 2007


Drugs : Mebendazole, Piperazine.

All members of the household should be treated simultaneously.

Common roundworm (Ascariasis) : The most common worm infection worldwide. It is transmitted to humans in contaminated raw food or in soil. The worms are large, and they infect the intestine, which can be blocked by dense clusters of them.

Drugs : Levamisole, Mebendazole, Piperazine

Tropical Threadworm (Strongyloidiasis) : Occurs in the tropics and southern Europe. The larvae from contaminated soil penetrate the skin, pass into the lungs, and are swallowed into the gut.

Drugs : Albendazole, Thiabendazole, Ivermectin

Whipworm (Trichuriasis) : Mainly occurs in tropical areas as a result of eating contaminated raw vegetables. The worms infest the intestines.

Drug : Mebendazole.

Hookworm (Uncinariasis): Mainly found in tropical areas. The worm larvae penetrate the skin and pass via the lymphatic system and bloodstream to the lungs. They then travel up the airways, are swallowed and attach themselves to the intestinal wall, where they feed off the intestinal blood supply.

Drug : Mebendazole.

Pork roundworm (Trichinosis): Transmitted in infected undercooked pork. Initially, the worms lodge in the intestines, but larvae may invade muscle to form cysts that are often resistant to drug treatment and may require surgery.

Drugs : Mebendazole, Thiabendazole.

Toxocariasis (Visceral larva migrans): Usually occurs as a result of eating soil or eating with fingers contaminated with dog or cat faeces. The eggs hatch in the intestine and may travel to the lungs, liver, kidney, brain, and eyes. Treatment is not always effective.

Drugs : Mebendazole, Thiabendazole, Diethylcarbamazine.

Creeping eruption (Cutaneous larva migrans): Mainly occurs in tropical areas and coastal areas of the southeastern US as a result of skin contact with larvae from cat and dog faeces. Infestation is usually confined to the skin.

Drugs : Thiabendazole, Ivermectin, Albendazole

Filariasis (including Onchocerciasis and Loiasis): Occurs in tropical areas only. It may affect the lymphatic system, blood, eyes, and skin. Infection by this group of worms is spread by bites of insects that are carriers of worm larvae or eggs.

Drugs : Diethylcarbamazine, Ivermectin

Flukes Sheep liver fluke (Fascioliasis): Is indigenous to the UK. Infestation usually results from eating watercress grown in contaminated water. It mainly affects the liver and biliary tract. Other flukes only found abroad may infect the lungs, intestines, or blood.

Drug : Praziquantel

Tapeworms : Including beef, pork, fish, and dwarf tapeworms. Depending on the type, it may be carried by cattle, pigs, or fish and transmitted to humans in undercooked meat. Most types affect the intestine. Larvae of the pork tapeworm may form cysts in muscle and other tissues.

Drugs : Niclosamide, Praziquantel

Hydatid disease (Echinococciasis): The eggs are trans­mitted in dog faeces, and the larvae may form cysts over many years, commonly in the liver. Surgery is the usual treatment for cysts.

Drug : Albendazole.

Bilharzia (Schistosomiasis): Occurs in polluted water in tropical areas. The larvae may be swallowed or penetrate the skin. Once inside the body, they migrate to the liver; adult worms live in the bladder.

Drug : Praziquantel.



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